Dependency Management

The greatest advantage in packaging Python code (when compared to other forms of distributing programs and libraries) is that packages allow us to stand on the shoulders of giants: you don’t need to implement everything by yourself, you can just declare dependencies on third-party packages and setuptools, pip, PyPI and their friends will do the heavy lifting for you.

Of course, with great power comes great responsibility. Package authors must be careful when declaring the versions of the packages they depend on, so the people consuming the final work can do reliable installations, without facing dependency hell. In the opensource community, two main strategies have emerged in the last few years:

  • the first one is called abstract and consists of having permissive, minimal and generic dependencies, with versions specified by ranges, so anyone can install the package without many conflicts, sharing and reusing as much as possible dependencies that are already installed or are also required by other packages
  • the second, called concrete, consists of having strict dependencies, with pinned versions, so all the users will have repeatable installations

Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and usually are used together in different phases of a project. As a rule of thumb, libraries tend to emphasize abstract dependencies (but can still have concrete dependencies for the development environment), while applications tend to rely on concrete dependencies (but can still have abstract dependencies specially if they are intended to be distributed via PyPI, e.g. command line tools and auxiliary WSGI apps/middleware to be mounted inside other domain-centric apps). For more information about this topic check Donald Stufft post.

Since PyScaffold aims the development of Python projects that can be easily packaged and distributed using the standard PyPI and pip flow, we adopt the specification of abstract dependencies using setuptoolsinstall_requires. This basically means that if PyScaffold generated projects specify dependencies inside the setup.cfg file (using general version ranges), everything will work as expected.

Test Dependencies

While specifying the final dependencies for packages is pretty much straightforward (you just have to use install_requires inside setup.cfg), dependencies for running the tests can be a little bit trick.

Historically, setuptools provides a tests_require field that follows the same convention as install_requires, however this field is not strictly enforced, and setuptools doesn’t really do much to enforce the packages listed will be installed before the test suite runs.

PyScaffold’s recommendation is to create a testing field (actually you can name it whatever you want, but let’s be explicit!) inside the [options.extras_require] section of setup.cfg. This way multiple test runners can have a centralised configuration and authors can avoid double bookkeeping.

If you use pytest-runner adding a --extras flag will do the trick of making sure these dependencies are installed, and if you use tox, the same is accomplished with the extras configuration field. By default PyScaffold will take care of these configurations for you.


If you prefer to use just tox and keep everything inside tox.ini, please go ahead and move your test dependencies. Every should work just fine :)


PyScaffold strongly advocates the use of test runners to guarantee your project is correctly packaged/works in isolated environments. A good start is to create a new project passing the --tox option to putup and try running tox in your project root.

Development Environment

As previously mentioned, PyScaffold will get you covered when specifying the abstract or test dependencies of your package. We provide sensible configurations for setuptools, tox and pytest-runner out-of-the-box. In most of the cases this is enough, since developers in the Python community are used to rely on tools like virtualenv and have a workflow that take advantage of such configurations. As an example, someone could do:

$ pip install pyscaffold
$ putup myproj --tox
$ cd myproj
$ python -m venv .venv
$ source .venv/bin/activate
# ... edit setup.cfg to add dependencies ...
$ pip install -e .
$ pip install tox
$ tox

However, someone could argue that this process is pretty manual and laborious to maintain specially when the developer changes the abstract dependencies. Moreover, it is desirable to keep track of the version of each item in the dependency graph, so the developer can have environment reproducibility when trying to use another machine or discuss bugs with colleagues.

In the following sections, we describe how to use two popular command line tools, supported by PyScaffold, to tackle these issues.

How to integrate Pipenv

We can think in Pipenv as a virtual environment manager. It creates per-project virtualenvs and generates a Pipfile.lock file that contains a precise description of the dependency tree and enables re-creating the exact same environment elsewhere.

Pipenv supports two different sets of dependencies: the default one, and the dev set. The default set is meant to store runtime dependencies while the dev set is meant to store dependencies that are used only during development.

This separation can be directly mapped to PyScaffold strategy: basically the default set should mimic the install_requires option in setup.cfg, while the dev set should contain things like tox, pytest-runner, sphinx, pre-commit, ptpython or any other tool the developer uses while developing.


Test dependencies are internally managed by the test runner, so we don’t have to tell Pipenv about them

The easiest way of doing so is to add a -e . dependency (in resemblance with the non-automated workflow) in the default set, and all the other ones in the dev set. After using Pipenv, you should add both Pipfile and Pipfile.lock to your git repository to achieve reproducibility (maintaining a single Pipfile.lock shared by all the developers in the same project can save you some hours of sleep).

In a nutshell, PyScaffold+Pipenv workflow looks like:

$ pip install pyscaffold pipenv
$ putup myproj --tox
$ cd myproj
# ... edit setup.cfg to add dependencies ...
$ pipenv install
$ pipenv install -e .  # proxy setup.cfg install_requires
$ pipenv install --dev tox sphinx  # etc
$ pipenv run tox       # use `pipenv run` to access tools inside env
$ pipenv lock          # to generate Pipfile.lock
$ git add Pipfile Pipfile.lock

After adding dependencies in setup.cfg, you can run pipenv update to add them to your virtual environment.